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Korean Journal of Child Health Nursing 2000;6(1):32-50.
Physiologic state and behavioral response to sponge bathing in premature infants.
Hae Kyung Lee, Kyung Ja Hong, Eun Sook Nam, Young Hee Lee, Eun Ja Jung
1Department of Nursing, Kangwon National University, Korea.
2Nursing College, Seoul National University, Korea.
3Seoul National University Hospital, Korea.
A descriptive exploratory design was used in this study to evaluate the effects of sponge bathing on physiological(heart rate, heart period, vagal tone, oxygen saturation, respiration) and behavioral responses in newly born 40 preterm infants from intensive care unit of S University Hospital in Seoul. Data has been collected from October, 1997 to March, 1999. The infants were between 27-33 weeks gestational age at birth, and were free of congenital defects. The subjects entered the protocol when they were medically stable (determined by initiation of feeding and discontinuation of all respiratory support) but still receiving neonatal intensive care. The infants' physiologic parameters were recorded a 10 - minute before, during, and after bathing. Continuous heart rate data were recorded on a notebook computer from the infant's EKG monitor. The data were digitized off-line on software(developed by Lee and Chang in Wavelet program) which detected the peak of the R wave for each heart beat and quantified sequential R-R intervals in msec(i.e. heart periods). Heart period data were edited to remove movement artifact. Heart period data were quantified as : 1) mean heart period; 2) vagal tone. Vagal tone was quantitfied with a noninvasive measure developed by Porges(1985) in Mxedit software. To determine behavioral status, tools were developed by Scafidi et al(1990) were used. Collected data were analyzed with the SPSS program using paried t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation. The result were as follow. 1.The results of the ANOVAs indicated that vagal tone were signifcantly lower during bathing than baseline and post-bathing. There were significant differences in heart period and heart rate levels across the bathing. But the mean oxygen saturations and respirations were no differences. Also, there were no significant differences on behavioral sign, motor activity, behavioral distress, weight changes, morbidity, and hospitalization period. 2. To evaluate the relation between vagal tone and subsequent parameters, the two groups (the high group had 19 subjects and low group had 21subjects) were divided by the mean baseline vagal tone. Vagal tone measured prior to bathing were significantly associated with respiration before bathing, vagal tone during bathing, and the magnitude of change in both vagal tone. But, other subsequent reactivities were no differences in two groups. 3.Correlations were also calculated between vagal tone and the subsequent physiological reactivities from baseline through after- bathing. Correlations were significant between baseline vagal tone and baseline heart rate, between baseline vagal tone and baseline heart period, between baseline vagal tone and oxygen saturation after bathing. In summary, the bathing in this study showed a stressful stimulus on premature infants through there was significance in the physiological parameters. In addition, our study represents the documentation that vagal tone reactivity in response to clearly defined external stimulation provides an index of infant's status.
Key words: Sponge bathing; Vagal tone; Heart rate; Heart period
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